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Presenters | efsli2016



Day 1

Christopher Stone (United Kingdom)

C-stoneChristopher Stone, PhD, joined the Department of Interpretation at Gallaudet University spring 2013 as an Associate Professor. He earned his PhD in Sign Language Interpreting from the University of Bristol (2006) where he researched Deaf translators working within television news rendering English into British Sign Language, which resulted in his publication of Towards a Deaf Translation Norm (Gallaudet University Press 2009).

Dr Stone is currently in receipt of a Spencer Foundation grant for the project “The development of Deaf legal discourse”, which examines the use of ASL by Deaf lawyers. He has explored (with Dr. Robert Adam and Dr. Breda Carty) Deaf people working as translators and interpreters within the Deaf community and at the institutional interface. He is also studying on Deaf/nonDeaf interpreting teams in international conference settings with Dr. Debra Russell. His first postdoctoral research post was based at the Deafness Cognition and Language (DCAL) research centre, University College, London, undertaking a longitudinal study examining predictors for sign language learning and sign language interpreter aptitude, which he is currently completing.

Lourdes Calle-Alberdi (Spain)
L-calleLOURDES CALLE-ALBERDI PRESENTATION TITLE: “Common sense” ethical versatility: bringing face-to-face flexibility and professional ethical norms.

BIO: Lourdes Calle-Alberdi is a qualified Spanish Sign Language interpreter and consultant. From 2011 until December 2015 she worked in efsli (European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters) as Project Coordinator. Among other responsibilities, she coordinated the European Model Curriculum for Sign Language Interpreters project (2011-2013) that resulted in the presentation of the publication “Learning Outcomes” at the European Parliament. She has also participated in the Spanish National Commission chaired by CNLSE examining the future of the training of Spanish Sign Language interpreters at University level. In 2015, she obtained her master’s degree in the European Master of Sign Language Interpreting (EUMASLI).

ABSTRACT: The wide range of settings and service users that interpreters have to work with necessitate making continuous context-based decisions. Considering that interpreting is a regulated profession, those decisions need to articulate the ethical normative material available in the profession, e.g. code of ethics and interpreter role metaphors. In this regard, different studies have reported a gap between what Dean and Pollard (2005) have called “rhetoric versus de facto” practice, meaning that what interpreters acknowledge as how professionals should conduct their work differs from what interpreters do in their current practice.

“I apply common sense”- this is a frequently used expression by Spanish interpreters when talking about an ethical decision made at work that does not fully comply with these interpreters’ understanding of the code of ethics (Calle-Alberdi, 2005a). This is also an expression that can be found in the academic literature tackling ethical issues in community interpreting. However, the meaning of this expression remains ambiguous. This presentation will report on how Spanish Sign Language interpreters understand the profession’s normative messages and articulate “common sense” in this regard. The data suggest that practitioners use this expression to legitimise decisions that tend to be “liberal”, meaning they imply action (Dean & Pollard, 2013). These decisions usually contradict what interpreters understand the normative material stipulates, especially the ideas presented by the “conduit” role metaphor that conveys the idea of the invisible interpreter whose responsibility is identified with the mere transfer of messages. In light of this contradiction, interpreters justify their decisions by calling for consideration of the factors present in a given situation; essentially, making context-based decisions. This approach challenges the rule-based approach to ethics present in most of the normative material available for Spanish interpreters.

Yvonne E Waddell (Scotland)
Yvonne E Waddell

Bio: Yvonne E WaddellYvonne E Waddell is a freelance professional British Sign Language (BSL) Interpreter from Glasgow, Scotland. She received her MA Interpreting Studies: BSL/English from the University of Leeds. She is currently a PhD student at Heriot-Watt University’s School of Management and Languages, within the Centre for Translation and Interpreting Studies Scotland. Her doctoral research includes an examination of the discourse strategies used by hearing clinicians in interpreted interactions with Deaf BSL patients in mental health settings, and also explores the decision making process of the interpreter and the impact on the participants within the mental health setting.

Title of presentation: ’Stand by’ mode – one of the strategies of the versatile interpreter

Language of Presentation: English

Abstract: Direct communication occurs in interpreted interactions when one of the participants has some level of communicative skill in the other participant’s language. This may be a hearing person who understands some sign language, a Deaf person who is skilled in lip reading and using their own voice, or someone who understands some of the foreign sign language or international sign being used by the other participant. During these interactions, there will be times when the interpreter is not required to interpret what is said between participants, but rather will shift their actions to ’stand by’ mode (Angermeyer 2008). ‘Stand by’ mode is not being switched off completely – far from it – interpreters are monitoring the communication between participants, assessing for possible miscommunication and misunderstanding, standing by ready to provide clarification.

Using data primarily from an ethnographic case study in mental health interpreting, this paper will also draw on experiences of BSL and IS interpreters in other community settings where this phenomenon occurs, and will describe the interpreter’s behaviour during this ‘stand-by’ mode, specifically exploring: When and where does stand-by mode occur? Who decides? What happens in the interaction to require this shift in behaviour? When in stand by mode, what prompts the interpreter to engage in interpreting again?

In order to learn from this strategy and apply it to our practice, this phenomenon will be explored through the lens of the practice professional and normative ethics (Dean 2015). Interpreters may feel uncomfortable in ‘stand by’ mode, thinking “I’m here to interpret, I should be interpreting…’. Even though ‘stand by’ interpreting is indeed an ethical decision, as we will see when we consider the practice professional prioritising certain values, this anxiety comes from the incommensurable values that we are struggling to reconcile.

Ege Karar and Oya Ataman (Germany)

Abstract: Interpreting for Deaf Refugees Presenters: Ege Karar and Oya Ataman Language: IS Format: Presentation

Interpreting for deaf refugees is extremely demanding regarding emotional investment, linguistic and strategic versatility of the interpreters and the collaboration between the participants in the setting.

E-karaEge Karar, Deaf Interpreter, and his hearing colleague Oya Ataman, both Turkish-born immigrants to Germany, have been training Sign Language Interpreters and integration officers for working with refugees. They are presenting salient aspects of working in this highly sensitive setting. They will illustrate typical pitfalls and explore strategic ways out.

1. The intercultural differences and synergies between refugees of deeply religious Christian and Muslim backgrounds in a Christian-secular legal environment. 2. The power differentials between the host and refugee culture and within the respective cultures regarding ableism and sexism. 3. The collaboration between deaf and hearing interpreter on the one hand, the interpreters and the other participants on the other. 4. Implications for the Code of Ethics.

Oya AtamanThe presentation is aimed both at practitioners who work in this setting and interpreter trainers looking for pedagogic methods to tackle the subject.

Short Bios: Ege Karar is a social pedagogue and a certified Deaf sign language interpreter in DGS, TID and International Sign. He is a research assistant and PhD candidate working at the Competence Center for Sign Language and Gesture of the RWTH University of Aachen, Germany. He holds a doctoral scholarship from the Diversity Fund of the RWTH Aachen. He leads the project Deaf Train improving the transcultural social skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing persons, especially migrants. He serves the national Deaf association as a committee member for migration and refugees, and is the president of the German Deaf Islam Association.

Oya Ataman is a certified multilingual Sign Language interpreter with an academic background in American studies and anthropology, based in Berlin and New York. Among other things, she trains interpreters and integration managers in intercultural communication and publishes on cultural identities within the Deaf community.

Päivi Rainò (Finland)

P-rainoName of presenter: Päivi Rainò Contact details for correspondence: paivi.raino@humak.fi Short biography: Päivi Rainò (Ph.D) is a sign linguist and a Coda. From 2012 she holds a Principal Lecturer position in Sign Language Interpreting Training Programme at Humak University of Applied Sciences. In 2011–2013 she held a fixed-term researcher position in the project “Current and future needs of interpretation services and rehabilitation for children with a cochlear implant”. At the moment, she conducts at Humak the European Sign Language Interpreter Programme (Eumasli) and a European Erasmus+ Project “Developing Deaf Interpreting” (2015-2018).

Title of presentation: The future needs of interpreting services of deaf children and adolescents with cochlear implant (and other new client groups that may use sign supported communication) Language of presentation: English

Debra Russell (Canada)

eflsi 2016 ABSTRACT It’s all Greek to me? Cohesion In Interpreting

Title: Dr. First name: Debra Last name: Russell Job title: Adjunct Professor Organisation: University of Alberta Town/city: Edmonton Country: Canada

Title of proposal: It’s all Greek to me: Cohesion in interpreting – Recognizing the Subtle Pieces Presentation: 40 minute presentation Primary Contact: Debra Russell drussell@ualberta.ca Language of Presentation: English or IS Level of skill/knowledge: Available to any level of skill, knowledge and experience Affiliations: 1) University of Alberta, Canada Abstract: Cohesion is key in any successful interpretation as it includes the elements that contribute to comprehension for the consumer. So why is it that interpreters often miss the key elements that tie it all together? What clues can we use to understand the perspectives taken by the interlocutor as they reveal shared and new information? This presentation with dawn on the work of depiction (Dudas, 2012) to help us see the ways that cohesion is built into a signed rendition and the strategies we can use to represent that in our spoken language. By exploring cohesive language use, including point of view, perspective (Janzen and Shaffer, 2008), topic marking, topic maintenance, topic shifts and the role of discourse markers, we will see the building blocks that we can capitalize on as interpreter in order to create an effective interpretation.


Day 2

Lianne van Dijken (Netherlands)

Picture Lianne van DijkenLianne van Dijken (NL) received her interpreter’s diploma in 2002. She studied linguistics at the University of Amsterdam and received her degree in 2004. Recently she graduated from EUMASLI, with a thesis topic on ethical decision-making. Lianne enjoys interpreting in a variety of settings and with a variety of people. She regularly takes interpreting students with her who report that they learn a lot from her positive way of giving feedback. Lianne is also part of a committee that advises the Registry of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands, in which all professional sign language interpreters are obliged to enrol.

E-mail: liannevandijken@gmail.com

Right versus Right: Sign Language Interpreters’ Ethical Decision-Making Processes – A Diary Study

Community interpreting takes the interpreter into situations from the cradle to the grave (Hale, 2007). Sign language interpreters (SLI’s) are practice professionals (Dean & Pollard, 2011) and the social dynamic context of their assignments as well as the internal processes of the interpreter need to be taken into account for making ethical decisions (Janzen & Korpiniski, 2005; Roy, 1993; Stewart & Witter-Merithew, 2006; Swabey & Mickelson, 2008). Departing from the fact that ethics is context dependent and practice dependent, the researcher looked at what insights the literature provides SLI’s with to conceptualise and articulate the ethical context of their profession. The division in normative, non-normative and meta-ethics was explored (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009/2013; Bolt, Verweij, & Delden, 2010; Cokely, 2000; Dean, 2015) as well as decision-making models (Cottone & Claus, 2000; Hare, 1981; Hoza, 2003; Kitchener, 1984)

In order to obtain authentic data from the SLI’s daily practice, to see what versatility entails in specific situations, diaries were given out to 10 practice professionals with more than 5 years of interpreting experience. The diary comprised questions to lead participants through it, as well as to seek for more structured data. After keeping their first diary, the research participants were invited to receive training in a specific decision-making model, the dialogic work analysis (Dean & Pollard, 2013). The researcher aimed for enhancing the participant’s ability to make informed and contextualised decisions by teaching them theoretical knowledge. After the training the 10 research participants were asked to again write (or audio record) a diary. Each participant reported on 4 or 5 different assignments per diary .

Giulia Petitta (USA)

Giulia Petitta, PhD


Petitta_photoGiulia Petitta is currently working in the Department of Interpretation at Gallaudet University, Washington, DC. Her main research interests lie at the intersection between linguistics and interpreting studies. After being involved in several research projects related to signed and spoken language linguistics, interpreting and translation, she is now investigating dialogue management by hearing-deaf interpreting teams within a project sponsored by the Gallaudet Office of Research Support and International Affairs. She is a member of ANIOS, the Italian association of professional sign language interpreters.

Andrea K. Smith (USA)

Andrea HeadshotSignposting and Neutral Channel Communications: How to Develop Trust in a Deaf-Hearing Interpreting Team

Abstract: Although Deaf interpreters have been working in a lay capacity for centuries and professionally for decades, their work often remains misunderstood, marginalized and underutilized. Analyzing the work of Deaf interpreters becomes problematic when the source language they are using—that provided by a Hearing interpreter—is inconsistent. There is a dearth of team training opportunities for Hearing interpreters working alongside Deaf interpreters, and this severely limits the co-creation of effective translations for a range of clients in diverse settings. This poster describes the research done in support of a Master’s thesis examining communications concurrent to active interpretation within Deaf-Hearing teams and revealing a critical component in generating successfully interpreted interactions, now known as “signposting”. Bio: Andrea K. Smith, M.A. SC:L, CI/CT, NIC is an ASL/English interpreter practicing in the Washington, DC area. She has a successful private practice and works primarily in legal and scientific/technical settings. She has been presenting workshops for over a decade on financial management for interpreters, legal interpreting, and performance interpreting and has completed the EUMASLI Master’s program.


Workshops / Presentations

Day 1

Workshop 1 - Professional Supervision: Supporting Self Reflection, Ethical Practice and Increasing Practitioner Resilience

Name of presenter(s) Omoyele Thomas Ali Hetherington Lyn chase


O-ThomasOmoyele Thomas has 14 years experience as a BSL/English interpreter and has worked within the community in a variety of settings as well as some specialist settings, predominately Mental Health. Omoyele just recently qualified in November 2015 as part of the first cohort of RSLI’s on the Diploma in Supervision course run by 360 Supervision. Her recent accomplishment has inspired her to spread the word about the benefits of supervision and has given presentations and webinars on the subject of Professional Supervision.

Ali HetheringtonAli Hetherington has twenty years experience as a BSL / English Interpreter primarily working in community and mental health settings. Ali is committed to the development of supervision within the interpreting profession and qualified as a professional supervisor at Manchester University in 2009. Her MA research into the causes and management of occupational stress within the interpreting profession and the benefits of supervision for interpreters was published as articles in 2011 and 2012. Ali is co-director of 360 Supervision and the Diploma in Supervision for signed language interpreters.

Lyn Chase has 14 years experience as a BSL/English interpreter. During her years of practice she has co-established a freelance interpreters support network, facilitated a dilemmas group for colleagues and trained as an ASLI approved mentor. The lack of meaningful accountability for interpreters work, coupled with her concerns for their health and well being, led her to enroll on the first Supervision diploma run specifically for Signed Language Interpreters. Now a qualified Supervisor, Lyn is passionate about the value of supervision and is committed to spreading her enthusiasm to the wider interpreting community.

Title of presentation Professional Supervision: Supporting Self Reflection, Ethical Practice and Increasing Practitioner Resilience

Language of presentation English


In 2014 Ali Hetherington, in collaboration with Cathy Davey a psychotherapist and supervisor trainer, designed a Diploma in Supervision, to redress the lack of qualified professional supervisors within the signed language interpreting profession. In partnership as 360 Supervision they provide nationally recognised supervision training, with an experiential focus on the contexts in which signed language interpreters work. In 2015 the first cohort of signed language interpreters completed their training as professional supervisors with 360 Supervision.

Decisions made by interpreters in the process of their work require careful, considered ethical reflection yet many signed language interpreters are freelance, work outside of organisational support structures and have limited opportunity for feedback, guidance and support other than informal collegial networks. Supervision offers a professional framework where interpreters can develop strategies to manage responses to distressing or stressful assignments, reflect on their practice and make informed choices about the work they undertake, protecting both themselves and those they work with.

Professional supervision can benefit interpreters at all stages of their development and across the wide variety of settings in which they work. The workshop will explore how professional supervision can provide a framework to both support the work of interpreters and inform ethical decision-making. Participants will have the opportunity to:

• identify their existing support networks and where they might benefit from additional support

• discuss the benefits of supervision for interpreters

• explore the functions of supervision and how to prepare for a supervision session

• experience supervision in action, through a live supervision session between the workshop facilitators

• explore the differences between individual and group supervision

• discuss how to access supervision

Workshop 2 - Versatility of spoken and sign language interpreter teams in conference settings

Presenter: Aude-Valérie MONFORT


MONFORTAUDE VALERIE1Conference interpreter based in Germany. Working freelance since 1989 for private companies as well as international institutions. Organises teams and interpreting equipment for clients. Between 2006 and 2014, course developer and interpreter trainer at the University of Applied Sciences in Cologne, at the SDI in Munich and then at the Glendon School of Translation of York University in Toronto. Founder and coordinator of the Sign Language Network of AIIC (International Association of Conference Interpreters). Today, also delegate for the Sign Language Network and the German Region within the AIIC Advisory Board and member of its Steering Committee.


Title: Versatility of spoken and sign language interpreter teams in conference settings


In the course of their career, most sign and spoken language interpreters will work in different environments and under varying conditions. Apart from the great flexibility required of them to adapt constantly to new people, diverse topics and unknown locations, interpreters strive to meet their clients’ needs to the best of their ability.

As novices, fresh from school, interpreters are mainly equipped with language skills and interpreting techniques. Through working practice they gain professional experience, i.e. in the field, by trial and error and/or by learning from senior colleagues. But how to deal with completely new situations, for example when one has to work for the first time in relay with sign or spoken language interpreters? Or when the usual working environment turns into a conference or a high-level meeting? How can interpreters adapt to distinctive clients and working conditions rapidly and without any mishaps? And above all, whom do we identify as our client?

In this workshop, interpreters together with expert practitioners are invited to examine different ways to develop professionally. By sharing experiences and methods, we will explore how to identify rapidly the variations in the conference setting and consider the resources available to handle different challenges around an assignment. We will also deal with one of the major elements of working in a team in a conference environment, i.e. how to understand the recruiting agent’s expectations towards the interpreter, apart from the obvious: language combination and interpreting skills. We will also discuss in which way professional associations can help and complement the initial interpreter training in order to allow interpreters to evolve in their professional practice. The workshop will be moderated by Aude-Valérie Monfort, AIIC conference interpreter.

Presentation 1 - Versatility in interpreting in different contexts: the role of Ethic and its consequences on Interpreting Tactics

Name of the presenters:

Emeline ArcambalEmeline Arcambal: Emeline is a French sign-language interpreter working in the Paris area. She is now enrolled in a PhD program in Translation Studies at ESIT (Ecole Supérieure d’Interprètes et de Traducteurs, Université Paris 3 Sorbonne Nouvelle). Her research interests include the role and the impact of the interpreter in different contexts, as well as issues concerning Ethic. She is an active member of “Trilogue”, a recent researcher collective in Translation Studies (under the framework of ESIT), working on community interpreting issues, including SL interpreting.

Florine ArchambeaudFlorine Archambeaud: Florine is a French sign-language interpreter. She has a Master Degree in linguistic research and was trained at ESIT where she now teaches. At the same time, she is involved in a PhD program in Translation Studies. Her research interests include spatial mapping and the construction of the signing space from French to French Sign Language interpreting and interpreting tactics in simultaneous contexts. She is also a founding member of “Trilogue”, a recent researcher collective in Translation Studies (under the framework of ESIT), working on community interpreting issues, including SL interpreting.

Sophie Pointurier-Pournin: Sophie is a French sign-language interpreter. She is also Director of the ESIT Sign Language Interpreting Master (Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3) where she teaches theory and practice. She has a PhD in Translation Studies under the supervision of Professor Daniel Gile. Her research interests include empirical studies in Translation Studies, simultaneous interpreting process and interpreting tactics, conference and community interpreting. She is also a founding member of “Trilogue”, a recent researcher collective in Translation Studies (under the framework of ESIT) working on community interpreting issues, including SL interpreting. Title of the presentation: Versatility in interpreting in different contexts: the role of Ethic and its consequences on Interpreting Tactics Presentation of the lecture will be in English Abstract: The concept of versatility underlies the interpreter’s capacity to understand and respect communicative and cultural norms of each participant in the interpreted event. Nevertheless, a widespread standard defends the idea that a « good interpreter » is an interpreter whose presence has been « forgotten ». Literature generally discusses the so-called invisibility of the interpreter in the communicative event. However, sociolinguistic researchers have analyzed the role of the interpreter in the interaction and indirectly highlighted the notions of adaptability and versatility. Those two visions seem very representative of the paradoxes encountered in our profession. We will present an overview of the existing theories related to the concept of versatility. We will see how the notion of “trilogue” (Seleskovitch, 1968) found an echo and was expanded by socio-linguistics applied to the interpreting situation (Wadensjö: 1998 ; Roy: 2000 ; Napier: 2006). We add to the discussion the concept of neutrality, which was also redefined for a better understanding of the interpreter’s role (Metzger: 1999; Shlesinger: 2010). We will then assume that the interpreter has a place in the communication situation and even participates in the co-construction of the discourse. Our work is in the line of this theorical point of view. If the interpreter has to adapt to a situation, what are the effects on the choice of his/her tactics? Do ethical issues have implications on translational choices? We base our reflections on a drawn parallel between two empirical studies. Our first corpus is an interpretation of a real pedagogical situation (over 40 hours of film and 6 interpreters). The second is an experimental situation of simultaneous interpretation to French sign language of the same discourse (9 different interpreters, no audience). While it seems evident that considerations for versatility are widely observable in the first corpus, this phenomenon is also significantly present in the second corpus despite there were no identified communication or cultural issues. Considering these results, is versatility strictly limited to the notion of interculturalism or communication, as the common standards assume it? Could not we consider then the notion of versatility to be inherently constitutive of the translational act?

Presentation 2 - Navigating the Small World Ethical Culture of Facebook

E-Professionalism: Navigating the Small World Ethical Culture of Facebook

Presenter: Brett Best


Language of Presentation: Spoken English

Presenter Biography:

Brett Best is a fully qualified American Sign Language (ASL)/British Sign Language (BSL)/English interpreter based in the UK and working internationally. She holds a European Masters in Sign Language Interpreting (EUMASLI) degree from Heriot-Watt University in Scotland and is currently studying toward a Graduate Certificate in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education through University of Wisconsin-Milwuakee. Her research interests include decision-making processes of interpreters and the impacts of technology on the profession.


E-professionalism refers to the broadening of the traditional professionalism paradigm to include the online domain (Cain & Romanelli, 2009). This is a burgeoning and important area of consideration because Anderson and Rainie (2010) assert that there is an online culture developing with norms that are different than those of traditional face-to-face interaction. One place where this new culture is purported to especially appear is on social networking sites, and a feature of this online culture may be small world ethics, wherein there is an enhanced overlap between professional and personal domains that require increased awareness and attention by professionals (Lannin & Scott, 2013). This presentation will present findings from focus groups of twelve interpreters from 3 different countries exploring sign language interpreter perceptions about e-professionalism on the world’s largest social networking site—Facebook. This research found that these interpreters perceived certain challenges brought to the profession which could be understood as small world ethical implications, but this research also found that Facebook was considered a valuable professional tool. The findings of this research may raise awareness of the issues a developing online culture may bring to the profession and generate further discussion about online considerations. Awareness is important because Fuchs (2014) classifies social networking sites such as Facebook as representative of a participatory culture, one in which those who participate in it shape and transform it. Therefore, by generating greater awareness and further conversation around professional issues on sites such as Facebook, the profession may be able to influence standard conceptions of e-professionalism.

Presentation 3 - Moral Sensitivity

Short bio

φωτοMaria Deliou has been interpreting between Greek Sign Language (ENG) and Greek for over ten years. She has worked mainly as a Designated Interpreter for a Deaf Professional (DPDI). The last three years her interpreting practice has been community focused and has ranged from medical and educational to employment and conference settings. She is a recent graduate of the second round of the European Master in Sign Language Interpreting (EUMASLI II). EUMASLI II ignited Maria’s interest in sign language interpreting research and particularly in ethics. Her thesis research focused on ethical data envisaging by novice and experienced sign language interpreters.

Abstract When professional practitioners encounter a situation that requests a decision, firstly they tend to decide their line of action and follow through their decision and secondly they think and explain their decisions and the subsequent consequences. Sign language interpreters are no exception. Rest (1984) developed the Four Component Model of ethical action. Component I, Moral Sensitivity refers to the agent’s ability to be aware of the situation (by detecting the salient contextual factors in it), the possible courses of action and the way these courses of action would affect the welfare of each participant involved. Little research has been done on sign language interpreters’ Moral Sensitivity. Through semi-structured interviews, this study seeks to find the differences, if any, in Rest’s (1984) Moral Sensitivity between experienced and novice interpreters. Furthermore, the researcher attempts to make any causal connection between ethics in interpreter education programs and Moral Sensitivity. The participants were ten novice interpreters who have three or fewer years experience as a nationally certified interpreter, and ten experienced interpreters who have six or more years as a nationally certified interpreter. The findings indicate that there are no differences between the two groups regarding Moral Sensitivity. In fact, both groups of interpreters rushed into their lines of action without first identifying the prominent contextual elements of the situation. Both novice and experienced interpreters did not consider the subsequent consequences of their actions on the welfare of the other participants (deaf and hearing interlocutors). In fact, the majority of them explored the consequences of their decisions on their own welfare rather than on the welfare of the other parties involved. Hence, the conclusions drawn are that Μoral Sensitivity is not related to experience. Furthermore, the findings indicate that with the proper instruction, Moral Sensitivity could be developed and it is thus, related to expertise. The only difference found between the two groups was in the way the participants uttered their thoughts and ideas. Diffidence, stress and hesitancy were obvious in novice interpreters’ responses. Conversely, experienced interpreters appeared more confident and coherent.

Workshop 3 - Agent 007: Discovering what our words reveal about out practice

Title: Dr. First name: Debra Last name: Russell Job title: Adjunct Professor Organisation: University of Alberta Town/city: Edmonton Country: Canada

Title: Dr. First name: Risa Last name: Shaw Job title: Associate Professor Organisation: Gallaudet University Town/city: Washington, DC Country: USA

Title of proposal: Agent 007: Discovering what our words reveal about out practice Practical Workshops: 2 hours

Language of Presentation: English Level of skill/knowledge: Available to any level of skill, knowledge and experience Affiliations: 1) University of Alberta, Canada 2) Gallaudet University, USA Abstract: How do interpreters talk about the work? What do our words reveal about how we engage with consumers and peers? When do we demonstrate language that is agentive vs. passive to describe our practices? This workshop presentation will involve a combination of a discussion of the design and methodology of the study (see below) in order to frame group discussions, and presentation of the findings of the study. Participants will work in small groups to discuss the issues that were raised in the study, how these issues arise in their work lives, and how they might work with their own practices to acknowledge and address power differences and agentive choices in effective ways. The study we conducted was with Deaf and hearing American Sign Language (ASL) interpreters from Canada and the United States who interpret legal discourse and interactions and it explored implications for the participants. This qualitative research study was designed to explore constructs of power and power dynamics in interpreted interactions. This study found intersections among power and privilege, interpreters’ sense of agency, their conceptualization of the task of interpreting, and their training. Participants reported situations where the power dynamics between Deaf and hearing interpreting teams did not support effective interpretation and ultimately had a negative impact on the interaction. How interpreters conceptualize the task of interpreting appears to be a key factor in producing conducting successful interpreted interactions. Participants offered examples of how understanding of the task of interpreting by various participants in an interpreted interaction (e.g., self, team partner, consumers) impacts their decision-making in several ways: qualification for an assignment; how they function as a Deaf and hearing team; and, what strategies they use to create meaning-based interpretation. This study highlights that the interpreter’s own awareness of power and privilege is a crucial pre-requisite to support active decision-making that facilitates effective interpretation, and how agentive or non-agentive language reveals what we do. This study has implications for interpreter educators and interpreters, and while the focus is on interpreting in legal settings, results and concepts are applicable across settings.

Workshop 4 - The co-creation of communicative projects within the Swedish Video Relay Interpreting Service

Camilla Warnicke

camilla warnickeCamilla Warnicke is a PhD student at the School of Health and Medical Sciences (IHM) at the University of Örebro, Sweden. She is a certified interpreter between (spoken) Swedish and Swedish Sign Language, working at the interpreter centre of Region Örebro County. She also works as a trainer in the interpreter programme in Örebro: Fellingsbro folkhögskola. Her research interest is interaction in interpreted encounters; (spoken/signed language) interpreting, particularly Video Relay Interpreting and Conversation Analysis. University Health Care Research Centre, Region Örebro County and Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health and Medical Sciences Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden Abstract

The co-creation of communicative projects within the Swedish Video Relay Interpreting Service

Language of presentation: Spoken English

The Swedish Video Relay Interpreting (VRI) Service is a facility that people who use a video phone can call in order to get in touch with people who use a telephone, or vice versa. The interlocutors have different access to the visual arena and the auditive space, and are physically separated from each other. The interpreters need to enable interaction across the different media, since the interpreter is the only one who has direct contact with both users of the service. The study is based on twenty-five authentic calls from the regular Swedish VRI Service, Bildtelefoni.net. The analysis of the recordings draws on Conversation Analytical (CA) methodology, in combination with dialogical theory (Linell 1998), and focuses on actions and activities within the calls on a moment-to-moment basis. The presentation focuses on what techniques and strategies that the interpreters use in order to enable the establishment of communicative projects, and how these communicative projects are dialogically managed among all of the interlocutors. The interaction is systematically laminated by the interlocutors’ establishment of more global and local communicative projects that are dependent on the contingencies of the VRI service, e.g. who called the service and who is called, the different phases of the call, the different media used (videophone or telephone), the modalities of interaction (Swedish, and Swedish Sign Language), social and institutional conventions, and the characteristics of the interlocutors. Communication on a distance, utilizing services such as the VRI, is becoming more and more common. Since the communicative projects are highly dependent on the interpreter, it is important for interpreters to reflect upon, and get a deeper understanding of the intricate details of (inter)action.

Linell, P. (1998). Approaching dialogue: talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Presentation 4 - When you're not understanding the ones you're supposed to

Elisabet Trengereid Olsen

Elisabet Trengereid Olsen «When you’re not understanding the ones you’re supposed to»

Biography Elisabet Trengereid Olsen completed her university degree in Sign Language Interpretation in 2001, and has since worked as an interpreter for the deaf, deafened and deafblind. In addition to being employed at the Interpreter Service in Bergen and at Ål Folk High School, she has been a freelance interpreter for several years. Since 2011, she has been working as an assistant professor at the Department for Sign Language and Interpreting at Bergen University College, teaching students Norwegian Sign Language and Interpreting. She has a Master’s Degree in Community Work, and her thesis «Mediated Interaction» addresses interpreting for deaf immigrants.

Abstract People migrate for various reasons. Some leave their homes due to poverty or war, searching for a better life in peace and safety. Some of these people are deaf. In Norway, they meet a new country, a new language and a society very different from what they are used to. Coming from developing countries and such, the deaf immigrants can have varying skills in speaking, writing – and/or signing formal languages. Some are illiterate. They communicate with members of the hearing majority through Norwegian interpreters. The interpreters are educated in interpreting to/from spoken Norwegian and Norwegian Sign Language. They know little of the deaf immigrant’s languages or way of communicating, and vice versa. When interpreting in in these communication situations, unusual challenges occur. The interpreters need to use different strategies to understand – and to be understood by the deaf immigrants. The EFSLI presentation is based on information collected when writing the Master Thesis «Mediated Interaction». The thesis’s research design is interviews with Norwegian interpreters in focus groups, and the data enlighten the interpreter’s point of view on interpreting. The focus is on situations where deaf immigrants with minimal skills in formal languages communicate with hearing Norwegians. Both possibilities and obstacles when it comes to communication across language barriers will be addressed in the presentation. The presentation also gives insight to certain beneficial coping mechanisms, and necessary frame factors when interpreting for deaf immigrants. Key words as cooperation, flexibility, responsibility, creativity and alignment are essential.

Presentation 5 - But it’s Chinese to the Greeks! Effective teaching of adaptive strategies for career long learning

Title of presentation: But it’s Chinese to the Greeks! Effective teaching of adaptive strategies for career long learning

Abstract (plenary presentation)

When commencing their journey towards professional status, the novice/student interpreter brings considerable excitement, apprehension and anticipation of desired accomplishment to the classroom (Shaw, Grbic and Franklin 2004). And to that classroom, alongside professional expertise, educators bring considerable pedagogical preparation for the development of interpreting competence.

A variety of methods have been developed and utilised to ‘scaffold’ learners on their journey into the applied task of ‘interpreting’. These tasks need to develop students’ flexibility and adaptability for different language types, when being rendered to different audiences with different needs and expectations.

This presentation will discuss findings from a small pilot study where we explore student and graduate interpreter perceptions of two core modules; ‘Introduction to Interpreting’ (BA year one) and ‘Consecutive interpreting’ (BA year two). Current students and graduates of the program will be asked via questionnaire and focus group follow up, how well the two modules have prepared them for: learning, developing flexibility and being adaptive within the BA degree program and after graduation during their working lives.

Our findings will reveal the student and working interpreter perspectives on:

. the efficacy of these modules, . the effectiveness for their development, . and the relevance to working as an interpreter after graduation

We will conclude by sharing recommendations for practice in the development of effective adaptive strategies in the novice sign language interpreters, and the implications for CPD.


Sarah Bown is Senior Lecturer and Course Leader for the B.A. (hons.) BSL/English Interpreting programme at the University of Wolverhampton. Her professional experience spans three decades incorporating interpreting, management of interpreting and public /private sector services. She has extensive experience delivering learning and teaching within a Higher education domain. A ‘Fellow’ and ‘Academic Associate’ of The Higher Education Academy, NRCPD Professional Standards Advisor, member of the efsli Committee of Experts, and awarded the University’s Centre for Excellence ‘Teacher of the Year Award’. She is founder and facilitator of ‘IRIS’ – International Research Interpreting Seminars, based at the University of Wolverhampton.

C-stoneChristopher Stone has worked as an interpreter educator and researcher within academia as University faculty (Bristol University, UCL, Gallaudet and currently the University of Wolverhampton) and delivered training workshops/seminars in the UK, across Europe, in North America and Australia.

Language of presentation: spoken English

Presentation 6 - Changing the paradigm for conference provision: a language based approach

Oliver Pouliot

Changing the paradigm for conference provision: a language based approach

There is a growing demand for conference interpreters who have one or more sign languages in their profile. Like at efsli Conferences, this places sign language interpreters at work alongside their spoken language colleagues. When considering the provision and coordination of interpreting teams working with a combination of signed and spoken languages, there are few resources currently available that offer best practice models.

By analysing, critiquing and questioning present methods of practice, this presentation will bring to light quality control logistics which should be considered when organising, coordinating and working in conference settings. The provision of sign language interpreting is sometimes constrained by limited resources, and therefore has traditionally followed a more practical approach. This presentation will suggest ‘best case’ scenarios to be used for a model of provision based on language pairs and audience design.

To support these proposed guidelines, a discussion regarding how to break away from the traditional profile labels of ‘spoken language’, ‘sign language’, and ‘deaf’ as they relate to interpreter practitioners, will also be included. Specifically, if we consider the professionally qualified language pairs of an individual over the modality of their work (or indeed their audiological status) then we need to rethink our categorisation and labels.

Furthermore, the need for more statistics regarding the amount of sign language interpreting, and the specific language pairs required, at conference level will be emphasised. This presentation will be based on the experience and scholarly perspective of the presenter in lieu of empirical research in this area.


OLIVER POULIOTOliver Pouliot, MSc: Oliver Pouliot is the director of Overseas Interpreting, a sign language interpreting business established in London in 2006. A professionally qualified practitioner for over 14 years, Oliver has lived and worked in the US, the UK, and is now based in Paris. He is the co- author, with long-time collaborator Louise Stern, of a chapter in ‘Deaf Professionals and Designated Interpreters: A New Paradigm’, published by Gallaudet Press. Oliver holds full membership with the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID, USA), the Association of Sign Language Interpreters (ASLI, UK), and the International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC).

Day 2

Presentation 7 - It's all Arabic ب ت ا to me: Experiences of interpreting inIslamic settings

Arusa bint Abdul Ghani Bio: Arusa bint Abdul Ghani qualified with a Postgraduate Diploma in British Sign Language/English Interpreting from SLI Limited and the University Of Central Lancashire. Arusa was subsequently invited by Al Isharah to interpret on a number of Deaf Umrah pilgrimages to Makkah and Medinah. Over the years she has gained interpreting experience in a variety of Islamic settings including sermons, conferences, training courses, testimony of faith to Islamic belief and Islamic matrimonies. She went on to set up Al Ghani Deaf Group which provides access to Islamic information and practice in British Sign Language.

EFSLI 2016 Presentation Abstract : It’s all Arabic ب ت ا to me: Experiences of interpreting inIslamic settings

Tom DaLacey-Mould and Arusa bint Abdul Ghani Sign Language Interpreters (SLIs) often work in settings they are unfamiliar with, no more so than being asked to work at a Mosque interpreting the Jummah Khutba (Friday sermon). Potentially a daunting prospect for interpreters and one most may not entertain. Islam and Muslims are constantly in the media however, many Deaf Muslims have little or no access to authentic Islamic belief. Without appropriate access Deaf Muslims may struggle to access Islam, to understand the difference between Islam’s portrayal in the media and what is actual Islamic belief taught by scholars of the Quran and Hadith. It is crucial that Deaf Muslims are able to access faith based information through competent interpretations. There are a few Muslim and non-Muslim SLIs accepting work in this domain. Within Islamic settings SLIs deal with vast arrays of challenges such as code switching between Arabic, English and other spoken languages, voicing over non-native signers, two-way interpreting of unfamiliar lexicons, cultural references, practices, customs and potential ethical dilemmas. Despite the array of challenges, interpreting in Islamic settings remains almost completely unexplored in literature. This paper focuses on experiences of SLIs working within Islamic settings, considerations regarding accepting assignments and strategies employed to navigate challenges to ensure successful interpretations. This paper is designed to raise awareness of this specialist work, stimulate debate and spark interest into further research.

Presentation 8 - The role of sign language interpreting in the access of deaf students in higher education

Name of presenters Magda Nikolaraizi, Tzeni Karvouni

Short biography for the two presenters nikolaraizhDr. Magda Nikolaraizi is and Associate Professor in the education of deaf children in the Department of Special Education, at the University of Thessaly in Greece. She is also a scientific coordinator of the Accessibility Centre “Prosvasi” which aims to support undergraduate and postgraduate students with disabilities at the University of Thessaly. She has participated and has also acted as the coordinator in numerous research projects. She has published more than 70 papers in international and Greek peer-reviewed journals and conferences proceedings as well as chapters in books. Her work has received more than 300 citations.

karvouniTzeni Karvouni is a special education teacher. She holds a Bachelor in special education (Department of Special Education, University of Thessaly).

Title of presentation The role of sign language interpreting in the access of deaf students in higher education

Abstract The role of sign language interpreters is vital in the access of Deaf students in higher education. Sign language interpreting in higher education is a very demanding and challenging task and the output of interpreting is a multidimensional issue. Therefore, various concerns have been expressed regarding the degree of access and the benefits that Deaf students attain via interpreting. In this presentation, empirical evidence is provided regarding the role of sign language interpreting for Deaf students. The evidence is based on a study the aim of which was to examine the level of academic access of two Deaf students who were supported by Greek Sign Language interpreters during lectures in a higher education institution. Observations during lectures took place, interviews with Deaf students and GSL interpreters and comprehension tests were used as methods for the selection of the data. Based on the qualitative data analysis there was a lack of awareness regarding the role of sign language interpreter among all parties involved in a lecture in a higher education classroom, that is the faculty teachers, the Deaf and the hearing students and the interpreters’ themselves. Due to the low awareness several barriers were identified which did not enable Deaf students to get the maximum benefit from interpreting. In the discussion several issues are taken into consideration in relation to the context and the services of higher education institutions, the awareness and attitudes of faculty teachers and hearing students, the training of sign language interpreters as well as the self-advocacy skills and the academic readiness of Deaf students. Finally, the emphasis is placed on the importance of high level interpreting services in higher education and the right of Deaf students to have access in higher education.

Conference language English

Choice of presentation Plenary lecture-style presentation


Presentation 9 - Interpreting strategies. What’s in it for me?

Name presenter: Isabelle Heyerick

Bio presenter: Isabelle Heyerick 2Isabelle Heyerick holds a MA in Dutch and English linguistics and literature and a MA in Interpreting in Dutch – English – Flemish Sign Language (VGT). Formerly she worked as a researcher for and the coordinator of the Flemish Sign Language Center. Currently she is working on her PhD project at the KU Leuven under the supervision of dr. Prof. Vermeerbergen. The research is on interpreting strategies used by Deaf and hearing VGT interpreters. Isabelle trains interpreters in the Master and in the postgraduate interpreting programme (VGT-Dutch) at Leuven University, Faculty of Arts in Antwerp. In 2008 Isabelle founded Tenuto – an organisation offering professional development to VGT interpreters- of which she is still the vice-president. In 2015 she became the secretary of the World Association of Sign Language Interpreters (WASLI).

Title of the presentation: Interpreting strategies. What’s in it for me?

Language of presentation: English

Key words: sign language interpreting – interpreting strategies – L1 and L2 signers – Deaf interpreters – research methodology – think aloud protocol – interpreting studies

Abstract: The presentation explores how sign language interpreters can apply interpreting strategies (Gile, 1995; Bernardini, 2001; Napier, 2002; Riccardi, 2005, Russel & Winston, 2014) in their daily work and benefit. Based on previous (Napier, 2002; Stone, 2005; 2009) and ongoing research (Heyerick, ongoing) on the topic, I would like to explore how strategies can increase interpreters’ versatility. Looking at the literature and research on interpreting strategies in the field of Interpreting Studies, I will present a definition and theoretical background. The overview will include results from research in both spoken languages and signed languages interpreting.

In relation to which strategies signed language interpreters use, I will draw on previous conducted research (Napier, 2002; Stone, 2005; 2009) and my own – preliminary – results. My PhD research looks at linguistic interpreting strategies used by Flemish L1 and L2 signed language interpreters. The first aim is to determine which strategies they use when interpreting from Dutch into Flemish Sign Language (VGT). These strategies will be described and compared in order to find out whether L1 and L2 VGT interpreters use similar or differing strategies. The data set consists of recordings of four L1 and four L2 VGT interpreters and is collected through a mixture of methodologies. The research design consists of four methods, which in turn stem from different disciplines. I use (1) think aloud protocol (Jääskeläinen, 2002; 2010)), (2) an interpreting task, (3) stimulated recall tasks (Gass and Mackey, 2000) and (4) an evaluation task where Deaf clients asses the interpreting performance. During the presentation I will clarify why these specific methodologies are used. The focus of the proposed paper will be on why strategies are important for interpreters, clients, interpreter trainers and students, offering tools in order to be able to decipher the “Greek”.


Presentation 10 - Interpreting at UAS meetings – A Case study of interpreters preparation, strategies and the need for support

Raija Roslöf and Tiina Saarijärvi-Kivelä Interpreting at UAS meetings – A Case study of interpreters preparation, strategies and the need for support

Diaconia University of Applied Sciences (DIAK) educates community interpreters, sign language interpreters and AAC-interpreters. Staff members include Deaf trainers, hearing trainers who are fluent in Finnish Sign Language and used to interpreted meetings, but also staff members who cannot sign and do not have experience in attending an interpreted meeting. Staff meetings are either face-to-face or more often online. In addition Diaconia UAS has a particular vocabulary and a variety of names and processes which the interpreters may find challenging. The interpreting service system in Finland doesn’t allow the Deaf to choose their interpreters for work life settings, which means that the interpreters change from meeting to meeting. Due to these issues the interpreting task is very demanding. During the spring of 2016, we carried out a case study on the interpreted meetings in Diak. We looked at the topic from the perspectives of the interpreter, the Deaf and the hearing person. We interviewed the interpreters about their preparation work, how the preparation affected the interpreting and which issues the interpreters found challenging. In addition to the interviews the Deaf and hearing participants noted down their observations. At the presentation we will highlight the key findings of this case study. Based on these findings, Diak is producing a preparation package for the interpreters. At the presentation we will introduce a first draft of this preparation package as an example of the topics the interpreters would need background knowledge on in order to better cope with their work. Raija Roslöf_2014Raija Roslöf Raija Roslöf is a qualified sign language interpreter since 1998, BA in SL interpreting from Diaconia University of Applied Sciences 2001. She has worked as a SL interpreter trainer in Diak since 2001 specialised in translation and interpretation theory and the cultural aspect of SL interpreters work. She finished her MA in the University of Turku 2007 with the major cultural history. Her master’s thesis focused on the cultural adaptation process of SL interpreters. She worked as a project director at the project IISE: Training Sign Language Interpreters – International Settings years 2009-2010 and currently at the project SignEdu – Developing Sign Language Interpreter training and the Interpreting services in Tanzania and Kenya 2015-2016. Since 2012 she has been the leader of the interpretation development group responsible of the sign language interpreter, AAC-interpreter and community interpreter trainings.

TiinaTiina Saarijärvi-Kivelä Tiina Saarijärvi-Kivelä has worked in Diaconia University of Applied Sciences since 2008. Her area of expertise is Finnish Sign Language and since 2015 also interpreting, especially educational settings. She finished her MA on education in the University of Jyväskylä 2008. Her master’s thesis focused on the language consciousness of Sign Language Users in L2 (Finnish Language). She is working in the project SanoistaKäsin (Words to sign) – internet server lexicography project and she has been actively involved in the international activities of Sign Language interpreting.



1 - Why we need deaf interpreter teachers

balkstamAbstracts for efsli 2016 conference “It`s all Greek to me” 9-11 september 2016 Name of presentations: Eira Balkstam (bachelor degree) and Magnus Ryttervik (MA) Short biography: Our names are Eira Balkstam and Magnus Ryttervik, both of us are deaf. Each of us hold a Bachelor´s degree in Swedish Sign Language. We work at the Department of Linguistics, Section for Sign Language, and the Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Section for Interpretation and Translation Studies, as teachers in sign language and in interpretation. Both of us teach at the Bachelor´s Programme in Sign Language and Interpreting at Stockholm University.

Title of presentation: Why we need deaf interpreter teachers Language of presentation: International Sign (IS) Abstract: See the attach file (video) The choice of presentation: Poster

2 - Conceptualizing meaning or “sense”: A theoretical foundation for strategies, instruction and assessment.

campbellName – Campbell McDermid, PhD, NIC, COI

Biography Campbell McDermid, PhD has over 30 years of practical experience in the field of interpretation and two decades as an interpreter educator. His research has explored the transferability of “sense” between English and American Sign Language at the literal and pragmatic levels. He has also looked at the social construction of interpreters, their function in work groups, and the abilities of both novice and experts to convey meaning. His work draws upon Grice’s earlier work in pragmatics and Relevance Theory. His latest interest is cohesion and the application of Halliday and Hasan’s model to translation.

Title – Conceptualizing meaning or “sense”: A theoretical foundation for strategies, instruction and assessment.

Language – English or IS


The work of sign language interpreters involves the decision to convey a speaker’s meaning at the level of literal or pragmatic intent, which can lead to different target texts in different contexts or by different practitioners. In a similar vein, they work with individuals who may prefer a verbatim translation or the conveyance of a potential speaker meaning, or a combination of the two. The latter then leads to code switching of mixing. However, what may be lacking is a model of the process that can be used as a foundation for instruction and testing and then later practice. This presentation will look at a model of interpreting by referencing the work of Paul Grice. Grice (1975) suggested two levels of meaning, literal or pragmatic (implicature) while neo-Griceans and Relevance Theorists suggested a third, Impliciture (Bach, 1994) or Explicature (Cartson, 2001). Examples will be provided in English and Greek to demonstrate each level, with emphasis on triggers for enrichment and implicatures. For example in English, one can translate the imperative, elliptical phrase, “Stop!” at the pragmatic level by adding, “Stop …watching television / eating ice cream, etc!” The Greek phrase “Όχι, εγώ δεν θα προσπαθήσω καν” could be enriched pragmatically as, “No, I will not even try…to help you, to do my homework, to paint this house, etc.” based on context (adapted from Major, 1840, p. 202). Various examples will be given from different context to show how texts can be pragmatically enriched, reduced, or replaced by an implicature.

3 - SWOT of Versatility in the sign language interpreting profession
Name of presenter(s): Darja FIŠER and Jasna BAUMAN

fisureDarja FIŠER is a Special Pedagogue, Manager, University trained Social Worker and Slovene sign language interpreter and researcher in the field of sign language interpreting and interpreters. She is a PhD in competency model for Slovene sign language interpreters. She is the president of the Institute Association of Slovenian sign language’s Council, today she trains new interpreters in the framework of the national Sign language interpreters training programme. Her expertise is in the social sphere, the social relations and projects in the area of social affairs as well as in establishment of work relations between users and interpreters. She is also a peer lecturer on various areas of the social affairs.

Jasna Bauman is a social worker graduate and has over 30 years of experience in working with deaf people and as a certified Slovene sign language interpreter. She actively participated in the preparation of statutory regulation of the deaf people’s right to an interpreter as a member of the working group appointed by the Minister of Labour, Family and Social Affairs. The catalogue of knowledge and skills for certification for Slovenian sign language interpreters was adopted and published on her initiative. She is a member of the exam board for certification of JASNAqualified national license interpreters. She is co-author of the project Call centre for people with hearing impairment and member of the Government Council for Slovenian sign language. She is the initiator and organizer of annual conferences on the subject of the deaf people’s right to an interpreter and standardization of Slovene sign language. In 2009, she was chief editor of the expert publication ‘The status of the Slovene sign language’. She has participated in various expert meetings and international conferences and is the author of a number of expert journal articles. In 2002, she was the Project Coordinator of the Practical multimedia dictionary of Slovenian sign language project, for which she received the European language merit. She has been the Director of the Institute Association of Slovenian sign language since 2004. Title of presentation SWOT of Versatility in the sign language interpreting profession Language of presentation Spoken English Abstract (max. 300 written words/ video of two minutes max.) Versatility of interpreter is not always positive. Many times brings a lot of threaths, weaknesses, but there are also opportunities and strengths. The research among slovene sign language interpreters in progress, is designed, that we are looking for: – Strengths – Which are strengths in versatility in interpreting service, especially on the fields, where sign language interpreter is not a professional and how these strengths are shown at work in intercultural situations. What sign language interpreter has to consider, that these strengths not turn into weakness or threats. – Weakness – When Versatility represents weakness and how this weakness turn into strengths or opportunities. What is the particulary weakness in the interpreting service in special assignment. – Opportunities – What in versatility in the sign language interpreting profession represents opportunities and how can sign language interpreter in special assignment weakness and threaths turns into opportunities. – Threats – Which situations at work in the specific or interculturally situations represents threats in versatility in the sign langue interpreting profession and how threats turns into strengths or at least opportunities. The results of analysis will help for issues, especially for the possibility of quality control in interpreting service. Possibilities of change from threats and weakness into opportunities and strehghts can be starting point at creating new techniques, strategies and nethods of education. Also the point of view on ethics in sign language interpreting can be changes at that matter. Because Slovenia is small country with relatively small number of deaf and sign language interpreters, we hardly can expect, that in future interpeters could divide on speciality as interpreters or assignment. Therefore is necessary, that we know the results of SWOT analysis and we implement them into praxiy and so we versatility turn only in strenghts.

4 - Signing “Therapies” to a vocational training class of Physiotherapy for deaf and hard of hearing students

Name of presenters: Dimitirs Mavreas, Foteini Skafida

Short biographies:mavreas

Dimitris Mavreas is teaching modern and ancient Greek, literature and history in secondary education and he is also a Greek Sign Language (GSL) interpreter. He graduated University of Athens (Faculty of Philology, MSc in Linguistics). At the same university he successfully defended his PhD thesis on GSL and specifically its language planning. He has presented papers in several conferences.


Foteini Skafida is a Special Educational Needs (SEN) expert. She works at a governmental agency for SEN assessment and support. Also, she is a Greek Sign language (GSL) interpreter, with experience mainly in health and education issues. She graduated University of Athens. Currently, she is completing her doctoral studies at SEN assessment. She lectures about deaf issues in higher and continuing education settings.




Title: Signing “Therapies” to a vocational training class of Physiotherapy for deaf and hard of hearing students Absract:

After high school, where studies’ main language is Greek Sign Language (GSL), the deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) students are confronted with studies at post-secondary level (Vocational Institutes/Training Centers) or at tertiary level (Universities/ Technological Educational Institutes). There, d/hh students are invited to carry out their studies through written Greek and without legal cover for continued support by GSL interpreters. The presence of GSL interpreter in higher education structures can ensure favorable conditions for the completion of the studies of deaf students (Hatzopoulou, 2005). The establishment of Public Vocational Training Institutes of Special Education (DIEK EA) attempted to cover this institutional gap at spring of 2014. In DIEK EA GSL educational interpreters coexist as second instructors, along with the regular instructors in Physiotherapy Assistant Specialty and also in IT Applications Technician Specialty. GSL educational interpreters were faced with terminology issues both in written Greek and in GSL and with ethics concerning the role of the educational interpreter within the system of DIEK EA and their fidelity in interpreting (cf. Moody, 2007). Exemplary issues arising were: • The use of the body or finger alphabet and mouthings for interpretation issues about terminology relating to muscles, joints and the corresponding movements. • The exploitation of non-formal signs for internal use. • The use of examples, mime or a more theatrical sign performance to make it more interesting and comprehensible for the class. Working in an environment that for the GSL educational interpreters was “all Greek to them”, in this poster presentation we focus on good practices attempted in the Physiotherapy Assistant Specialty courses. Finally, we place suggestions for improving the professional efficiency as well as the working conditions of the GSL educational interpreters working at DIEK EA, at an institutional level.

5 - GSL interpreters’ contribution to the D/HH student access to Higher Education

ViviKatouisViviKatouis a former teacher in D/HH Education. Educational Interpreter of the GSL from 1992. Founding Member of ‘SDENG’ (Hellenic Association of GSL Interpreters), proposed by the Greek Federation of the Deaf (OMKE) since1996 as memberof the Adm. Board and Examiner of the GSL interpreters candidates. In 2004, shereceived her MA, in the Deaf Education from Patras(Greece) University.

Fotini Sarinopoulou is a former Social Worker and interpreter (founding Member of ‘SDENG’ , the Hellenic Association of Greek Sign Language Interpreters). She has had more than 32 years of experience with the education of D/HH students,and interpretation in this area . IN 2001 she completed her MA at the Deaf Studies Unit of the Durham University, U.K. Her project investigates “Deaf student’s access to higher education in Greece”. Fotini has been working as collaborator at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, for thirteen years, in the “Counselling Intervention Program in Higher Education for DHH students” at the TEI of Athens.

Fotini SarinopoulouGSL interpreters’ contribution to the D/HH student access to Higher Education The current presentation is a data assessment review of a programme, for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing students(D/HHs), involving the use of GSL interpreters in the academic life at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens(ATEI). 59 subjects (25D/HHstudents, 29teachers, 5interpreters) were enrolled for this study that was carried out bythe University’s Social Service between 2003 and 2013.The presentation will provide both quantitative results from the application of the interpretation service, as well as qualitative data based on the evaluation of the program by the D/HHstudents, teachers and interpreters, in respect to the following matters: Was the access of the D/HHstudents to the academic environment facilitated by the provision of the aforementioned GSL interpretation service? In which way was that affected? Did the program interpreters managed to live up to the teachers’ and D/HHstudents’ expectations? How did the interpreters handle linguistic and cultural difficulties during the interpretation? Did the interpretation support the D/HHstudents in handling the academic demands of the ATEI, considering their not always adequate background knowledge? In conclusion, this report sums up with some encouraging results from the GSL interpretation service provided by the ATEI: The GSL interpreters acquired valuable skills, regarding their efficiency for their success in a highly demanding working environment. The D/HHstudents achieved better academic performances. The collaboration between D/HH alumni graduates and specialized interpreters yielded significant educational material. GSL Interpretation in the ATEI strengthened social values and skills of both deaf and hearing persons.


6 - Versatility of interpreters in the university setting
Versatility of interpreters in the university setting (poster) Daniela Tesarikova (English) Being versatile is one of the key attributes of an interpreter. That holds true particularly in the university environment. Versatility, flexibility and the ability to deal with interpreting in a wide range of fields including those that the interpreter is not familiar with: that is but one of the requirements interpreters employed at universities need to meet. This paper addresses the possible situations that may arise in the school environment; situations that require special skills and professional approach. It also focuses on strategies used at Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic, which may serve as an inspiration for professional interpreters in the area of educational interpreting and elsewhere. These strategies are being developed by a team of interpreters at Masaryk University (MU), making use of years of interpreting experience at MU and other Czech universities. These strategies are not used universally by all interpreters working in the Czech Republic; they are based on a conception reflecting the specific needs of the team of interpreters at MU. The presented strategies are based on the cooperation between the interpreter and the instructor of the course in question, the acquisition of all available teaching materials, consulting fellow interpreters as well as deaf colleagues, and making use of available multimedia materials (including Czech Sign Language Dictionary and Thesaurus and The Hybrid Book). This presentation also acquaints the audience with specialized materials and documents meant not only for interpreters but also for students with hearing impairments. These materials are being developed by a team consisting of interpreters and both employees and students with hearing impairments. More specifically, the paper focuses on demonstrating the multimedia material titled Základy medicínské propedeutiky v českém znakovém jazyce (Transl.: Basic Medicinal Propedaeutics in Czech Sign Language). This material in the Hybrid Book format is freely available to the public on our website.

Presenter: Daniela Tesarikova Daniela Tesarikova is from the Czech Republic. She works as a sign language interpreter at the Teiresias Centre, which is a support centre for students with special needs at Masaryk University in Brno. She also works as an online interpreter at Silent World, a career counselling agency for deaf and hard of hearing people. Daniela has taken to performing arts interpreting including theatre and musical performances with the Hands Dance amateur group. She graduated with a degree in Deaf studies from the Charles University in Prague and currently is studying Special Needs Education at Masaryk University.

TESARICOVADana Penazova Dana Penazova is from the Czech Republic. She has been working with Deaf people for a long time. She is a CODA as her parents are Deaf. She has been an interpreter since 1983 and since 1992 has worked as a police and court interpreter. Dana works at Masaryk University in Brno, specifically at the Teiresias Centre, a support centre for students with special needs. She specializes in interpreting at the Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Science, and Faculty of Education. She also offers interpreting services to Deaf clients, e.g. at the doctor’s office or when dealing with offices.

7 - Versatility of sign language interpreting programs: Deaf and hearing students on equal grounds?

Versatility of sign language interpreting programs: Deaf and hearing students on equal grounds? Gro Hege Saltnes Urdal, Bergen University College Ingeborg Skaten, Bergen University College Elisabet Tiselius, Stockholm University/Bergen University College

Contact for presentation: Elisabet Tiselius, elisabet.tiselius@su.se Language of presentation: English

Sign language programs open for Deaf students (e.g. at HUMAK in Finland or University of Hamburg in Germany) accept hearing and Deaf students on equal grounds. Other than giving hearing and Deaf students training on equal grounds, it also possibly means that Deaf students will not need interpreting services to the same extent as they would in another program, thus, at least on the surface these types of programs seem truly accessible. So far, however, there are no investigations of the experiences of students participating in these types of joint programs. This presentation will report the preliminary findings of the data collection of a research project aiming to investigate these experiences. Data has been collected at HUMAK in Helsinki, Finland, who has accepted Deaf students to their program since 2001. The presentation will report data from in-depth and semi-structured interviews, as well as surveys with former and presents students, both Deaf and hearing, as well as teaching staff. Flexibility and versatility can be assumed to be an important part of the success in such programs. Furthermore, in order for strategies for continued professional training to be successful they need to be laid down during training. Presumably some of these adaptive strategies may be acquired through the cross-fertilization from the experiences of both Deaf and hearing students.

Biographies: Gro Hege Saltnes UrdalGro Hege Saltnes Urdal, assistant professor and head of the department of Sign Language and interpreting: I started working as an interpreter in 1999, after completing my University degree in Sign Language Interpreting. I have worked as an interpreter in different settings (college, workplace, social settings, and legal settings). I have also a Bachelor-degree in physical education, and MA in Community Work. My master-thesis is titled “Social interaction in sign-to-voice situations – conditions for deaf people’s participation”. Since 2005, I have been teaching Sign Language interpreting at the Bergen University College (Bachelor in Sign language interpreting), and doing freelance interpreting.

Ingeborg SkatenIngeborg Skaten, assistant professor at the department of Sign Language and Interpreting at Bergen University College. I am a sign language interpreter and sociologist. My BA-thesis in Sociology is titled “Tolk, døvetolk – eller tegnspråktolk? [«Interpreter», «Interpreter for the deaf» – or «sign language interpreter»?]: A discourse analysis of the interpreter students’ construction of (professional) identity”. I have been working as a lecturer at the BA program in sign language and interpreting since 2004, and also worked within the national deaf association for 20 years. The relationship between the profession and the consumer societies are one of my main research interests.

Elisabet TiseliusElisabet Tiselius, senior lecturer and director of studies for interpreting at the Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies at Stockholm University. My PhD was about expertise in interpreting, and I have been active as (spoken language) interpreter since 1996. I am Swedish state certified community interpreter, accredited to the EU and member of AIIC. My recent research projects cover medical interpreting in Child Cancer Care, child language brokering, Expertise in Community Interpreting and interpreting programs with mixed Deaf and hearing student groups. Unfortunately, I do not sign. Follow me on twitter @tulkur.